Sun avoidance and protection is extremely important in preventing skin aging. It is also essential before and after any laser or light treatment. Measures to protect from the sun include : use physical shading such as umbrella and wide brimmed-hat to shade your face, avoid reflective surfaces and daily application of adequate sunscreen. The ideal sunscreen should be broad spectrum and effective in protection against both UVB (as indicated by the SPF factor) and UVA.
Skin has natural defense mechanisms to deal with the oxidative stress by neutralizing the free radicals. Other potential topical antioxidants include vitamin C, E, coffeeberry, other botanical antioxidants (polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids etc), ubiquinol,£\-lipoic acid etc.
Peptides are short chains of amino acid sequences. There are three categories of cosmeceutical peptides : the signal peptides, carrier peptides and neurotransmitter blocking peptides (Argireline).
Retinoids are vitamin A derivatives and is FDA approved treatment of photodamaged skin.